Hydrometer or limos paper should be used to test the acidity of the solution which is normally caused by caustic soda. When it reads green it means that the acidity level is alright, when yellow or white it is neutral, but when it reads red the acidity is very high.
You can either add soda flakes to increase acidity or add industrial salt to reduce acidity depending on your result.
It is also important to know that for you to make liquid or detergent soap, the rate of PKO to caustic soda is 2:1 that is for every 10 liters of PKO you need 5 liters of caustic soda.
Some of the things you have to bear in mind that makes up a quality Bar Soap include but not limited to the following:
- It must foam very well.
- It must be solid, strong and durable
- It must have attractive scent or perfume.
- It must have attractive color
- It must NOT itch one’s hand or body (No scratching of any kind)
- It must not cause the skin to peel or flake
- It must not develop whitish flakes after a few days of production.
Safety Precautions/Measures when making a Soap
Some of the important safety precautions and measures anyone making a soap should strictly adhere to include but not limited to the following:
1. Focus – always avoid distractions and put your mind on the steps to be taken as failure to concentrate might lead to chemical spills or injuries.
2. Wear protective clothing which you must remove at the end of the whole procedure, these include:
- Eye goggles
- Long sleeves
- Hand gloves
- Nose guards. These are to prevent your skin from any accidental spill of chemical.
3. Keep all the Chemicals in a separate place away from the reach of children. You don’t want to expose your little ones to any form of danger!
4. Keep (If possible) a bottle of vinegar around you during the procedure. If you accidentally spill any chemical on the ground, pour some of the vinegar on the spot as this helps to neutralize the effect of the poisonous chemical.
5. Use common sense – in every circumstance, there are times when you just have to apply the use of common sense in situations where there might be no clearly stated rules of engagement.
6. Always follow the rule of “safety first”. Just make sure you do what would keep you and your loved ones safe.
Meanwhile, below are the list of the materials/Ingredients needed, their required quantities and their functions:
|1||Pko||20 liters||cleansing and Bubbles|
|2||Caustic Soda||10 liters||Neutralizes Acidic and Materials|
|3||Sodium silicate||¼ liter||Shinning Agent|
- Caustic soda is soaked overnight or for a minimum of six hours for fermenting.
- Measure out the PKO in a container
- Pour the PKO and hardener in another bucket
- Pour in the soda solution
- Add color of your choice
- Add perfume
- Add sodium silicate
- Pour it into a mold and leave to get solid
- Cut and stamp as you please
- Always remember to test for acidity using limos paper or hydrometer.
How to make soap in Nigeria; complete guide